• BAM – Binary alignment map or binary alignment matrix
  • BpBase pair
  • BF – Birth father
  • BGABiogeographical ancestry
  • BGI – Beijing Genomics Institute
  • BISDNA – An acronym to denote BritainsDNA, ScotlandsDNA and IrelandsDNA, the three principal trading names of the DNA testing companies established by the Moffat Partnership
  • BLASTBasic Local Alignment Search Tool
  • BM – Birth mother
  • BMD – Acronym for birth, marriage and death records (known as vital records in North America)






  • GAP – Group administrator page. This is the name given by Family Tree DNA to the special pages used by group administrators to administer their DNA projects.
  • GEDCOMGEnealogical Data COMmunication. A method of exchanging genealogical information in a standard file format
  • GB – Great Britain (comprising the countries of England, Scotland and Wales)
  • GbGigabase
  • Gbp – Gigabase pair
  • GC – Genetic Communities – a feature provided with the AncestryDNA test
  • GDGenetic distance
  • GOONSGuild of One-Name Studies
  • GRO – General Record Office (England and Wales)
  • GROS – General Record Office Scotland
  • GWAS – Genome wide association studies


  • HBD – Human biodiversity or homozygosity by descent
  • HGP – Human Genome Project
  • HLA – human leukocyte antigen
  • HIRHalf-identical region
  • HTS – High throughput sequencing
  • HUGO – Human Genome Organisation
  • HVR – Hyper-variable region. The sections of non-coding mitochondrial DNA that are used for low-resolution genealogical DNA testing.
  • HWE – Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium




  • KbKilobase
  • Kbp – Kilobase pair
  • KYA – Thousand years ago


  • LCA – Lowest common ancestor – the most recent ancestors shared by a pair of individuals
  • LCN – Low copy number
  • LDLinkage disequilibrium
  • LDS – Latter-day Saints (The Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-day Saints)
  • LGM – Last glacial maximum
  • LHON – Leber’s hereditary optic atrophy (a mitochondrial DNA disease)
  • LHP – Length heteroplasmy
  • LoH – Loss of heterozygosity
  • LTR – Long terminal repeat
  • LUCA – Last universal common ancestor


  • MAF – Minor allele frequency
  • MALD – Mapping by linkage disequilibrium
  • MbMegabase
  • Mbp – Megabase pair
  • MDKA – Most distant known ancestor
  • MDS – Multi-dimensional scaling
  • MNP – Multiple nucleotide polymorphism
  • MNV – Multiple nucleotide variant
  • MPS – Massively parallel sequencing – another name for next generation sequencing
  • mtDNAMitochondrial DNA
  • mRNA – Messenger RNA
  • MRCAMost recent common ancestor
  • MSA – Multiple sequence alignment
  • MSY – The male-specific region of the Y-chromosome
  • mtDNAMitochondrial DNA
  • mu – Map unit





  • RAO – Recent ancestral origins (formerly known as REO – recent ethnic origins). The number of matches you have in Family Tree DNA‘s database as specified by country or region. To access the RAO, Family Tree DNA customers need to click the tab on their « My FTDNA » page.
  • RGRelative Genetics, a commercial DNA testing company. (Acquired by in summer 2007).
  • rCRSRevised Cambridge Reference Sequence
  • RecLOH – Acronym for Recombinant Loss of Heterozygosity
  • ROH – Runs of homozygosity. ROH are regions of the genome where an individual inherits the same allelesfrom both parents. The alleles are identical because our parents have inherited them from a common ancestor at some point in the past or more recently through a cousin marriage.
  • RPP – Relationship Predictions Provider – A provider of matching centiMorgans (cMs) relationships datasets as used by the Gliesian Genealogy Autosomal Relationships Predictions web application.
  • RSID – Reference SNP identification
  • RSRS – Reconstructed Sapiens Reference Sequence, the deduced ancestral mitochondrial sequence.



  • TG – Triangulated group. Previously used as an abbreviation for the now defunct company Trace Genetics.
  • TiP – See FTDNATiP above
  • TMRCA – Time to the most recent common ancestor (ACPR)
  • TNA – The National Archives (UK)


  • UEPUnique Event Polymorphism
  • UK – United Kingdom of Great Britain (England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland


  • VCF – Variant call file
  • VR – Vital records (birth, marriage and death records)



Speak Your Mind